UV SYSTEM

Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) is a disinfection method in water treatment that uses short-wavelength UV disinfects water containing bacteria and viruses and can be effective against protozoans like, Giardia lamblia cysts or Cryptosporidium oocysts. Ultraviolet (UV-C) light to kill or inactivate microorganisms by destroying nucleic acids and disrupting their DNA, leaving them unable to perform vital cellular functions.

UV disinfection can also be used as a virus barrier against Adenovirus, and in a multi-barrier strategy to provide confidence in the water supply.

Advancement in Technology :

UV combined with HydroDynamic Cavitation(HDC), a physical process, improves the efficiency of UV by 3 to 4 time as compared to tradition UV systems.HDC fitted UV systems are capable of treating hard to inactivate microbe such as pseudomonas and moulds.
HDC is the leading technology in UV water systems replacing old mechanical cleaning systems. It keeps the quartztubes continuously clean, and breaks down any solid particulate and microbial clusters to provide higher deactivation rates for lower UV wattages.

Advantages of Disinfection

Lower operating costs
Longer lamp life
Replacement periods

Applications

Water Disinfection

OZONATION

Ozonation is a water treatment process that destroys microorganisms and degrades organic pollutants through the infusion of ozone, a gas produced by subjecting oxygen molecules to high electrical voltage. This process is called Corona Discharge method. Ozone is an unstable gas comprising of three oxygen atoms, the gas will readily degrade back to oxygen, and during this transition a free oxygen atom, or free radical form. The free oxygen radical is highly reactive and short lived.

The effectiveness of ozone results from its powerful oxidising effect on chemicals and microorganisms caused by the generation of reactive oxygen species during ozone transformation to oxygen. Ozone directly attacks the surface of microorganisms and destroys their cell walls. The cells thus loose their cytoplasm and can no longer reactivate themselves. Ozone can induce an oxidative degradation of many organics and leaves more biodegradable compounds. Besides, ozone can oxidise metallic ions such as Fe(II), Mn(II) or As(III) producing insoluble solid oxides that can be easily separated from water by filtration or sedimentation.

Whilst ozone is more effective than chlorine in inactivating viral agents, there are significant disadvantages to its use. Ozone does not provide residual protection against re contamination during distribution and as ozone affects biological stability, it may encourage re-growth of bacteria. However, given the concerns about the use of chlorine in many countries because of the formation of toxic disinfection by-products (DBP), the use of ozone is increasingly investigated and the lack of residual may be dealt with by employing regular booster ozonation during distribution.

Advantages :

Ozone is effect over a wide pH range and rapidly reacts with bacteria, viruses, and protozoans and has stronger germicidal properties then chlorination. Has a very strong oxidizing power with a short reaction time
The treatment process does not add chemicals to the water.
Ozone can eliminate a wide variety of inorganic, organic and microbiological problems and taste and odor problems. The microbiological agents include bacteria, viruses, and protozoans (such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium.

Applications

Water Treatment - Disinfection.
Waste Water Treatment : Decolouring, Disinfection, Removal of Heavy Metals.

Disadvantages :

There are higher equipment and operational costs and it may be more difficult to find professional proficient in ozone treatment and system maintenance.
Ozonation provides no germicidal or disinfection residual to inhibit or prevent regrowth.
Ozonation by-products are still being evaluated and it is possible that some by-products by be carcinogenic. These may include brominated by-products, aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids. This is one reason that the post-filtration system may include an activate carbon filter.
The system may require pretreatment for hardness reduction or the additional of polyphosphate to prevent the formation of carbonate scale.
Ozone is less soluble in water, compared to chlorine, and, therefore, special mixing techniques are needed.
Potential fire hazards and toxicity issues associated with ozone generation.

CHLORINATION

Although several methods eliminate disease-causing microorganisms in water, chlorination is the most commonly used. Chlorination is a chemical disinfection method that uses various types of Chlorine or Chlorine containing substances. Chlorine is available as Compressed Elemental gas, Sodium Hypochlorite solution -NaOCl or Calcium Hypochlorite -Ca(OCl)2.

Chlorine inactivates a micro organism by damaging its cell membrane. Once the cell membranes is weakened, the chlorine can enter the cell and disrupt cell respiration and DNA activity – the two processes that are necessary for cell survival.

Any type of chlorine that is added to water during the treatment process will result in the formation of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and hypochlorite ions (OCl-), which are the main disinfecting compounds in chlorinated water.

Chlorine + H2O ->HOCl +OCl

Of the two, hypochlorous acid is the most effective. The amount of each compound present in the water is dependent on the pH level of the water prior to addition of chlorine. At lower pH levels, the hypochlorous acid will dominate.

The amount of chlorine that is required to disinfect water is dependent on the impurities in the water. The chlorine will react with impurities and then leaves a residual chlorine. This is called Chlorine Demand. Once the chlorine demand is met.

Applications

Water Treatment & Waste Treatment - Disinfection